Presence of Escherichia coli and Coliform Bacteria in Drinking water sources as indicator to other fecal contamination
Mutaz Mohamed Ahmed Elshiekh, Eman Abd Alla Gism Alla Alamin
The main objective of this research project is to find a best source for drinking water with low concentration of E.coli and to predict a better treatment method(s) to produce low contaminated water in order to achieve best conditions for reasonable public health in Omdurman (Sudan) through guiding people to use adequate and de contaminated drinking water. Coliforms are good indicator of potential of water contamination. Testing for coli form bacteria is faster and cheaper than testing for specific organisms and pathogens. Water is important for life of human and animals hence purity of water from pathogenic microorganism is very important public health goal. Random samples from different water drinking sources were tested and cultured for the presence and/or concentration of E. coli. These samples were River Nile, surface water collected water from Almanara Company (treated by chlorine) before entering to the water dispensers system, Almanara normal house hold water after entering the dispensers system, Wells water and Mineral bottled water (treated by ozone) from three different industrial water treatment companies, these were Mizo, Cristal and Anhar. Sample from each water sources was cultured separately in the microbiology lab at Ahfad University for woman for coli form and E. coli. Surface water collected directly from the river Nile (neither decontaminated by chlorine, ozone) was found to be the most contaminated water with the E. coli, Almanara house hold water after entering the water dispensers system was found to be next in terms of contamination. Collected water from the tankers of Almanara before entering the dispenses system occupies the third position concerning the degree of contamination indicating that the dispensers system was already contaminated with the E. coli. Well water (treated with chlorine) and industrial Mineral bottled water (treated with ozone) were found to be coli form and E. coli decontaminated samples. Finally we concluded that drinking water contamination depends on the water source and the type of water decontamination treatment method. Results were evaluated and recommendations were drawn.