Vol. 2, Issue 2 (2018)
Phytochemistry and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aspilia africana (Pers) C.D. Adams
Author(s): O Ilesanmi, OG Okon, A Acho Marvelous, DO Grace Eneh, E Imaobong Fidelis
Abstract: Qualitative/quantitative phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory activity of Aspilia africanawas investigated using the carrageenan. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema is a widely used test to determine anti-inflammatory activity and constitutes a simple and routine animal model for evaluation of pain at the site of inflammation without any injury or damage to the inflamed paw. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening, Acute Toxicity Test (LD50) and inflammatory analysis were carried out. Results revealed A. africanacontained saponins, tannins, combined anthraquinone, cardiac glycocides, terpenes and flavonoids in appreciable amounts. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with a single dose of 0.09 – 0.64 mg/kg of A. africana ethanolic leave extracts after being left without food for 18 hours. Intraperitoneal route was chosen because of its sensitivity and rapid results. These ethanolic leaf extracts produced various degree of toxicity ranging from writhing, decreased respiration to mortality. The intensities of these effects were proportional to the dose administered. The intraperitoneal LD50 for A. africana was 489.99mg/kg. Toxicity analysis revealed that the leaves A. africana are non toxic at a particular dose. Administration of different percentages of ethanolic leaf extracts showed marked inhibition at different measured interval and extract of A. africana prevented the formation of edema induced by carrageenan, thus showing significant anti-inflammatory activity (p=0.05) and also inhibited the edema by injection of noxious agent as compared to the control group. Also, ethanolic leaf extracts of leaves A. africana inhibited inflammation of hind paw edema of albino rats induced by carrageenan. The synergistic effect of saponin and flavonoid present in the plant which has been investigated to possess anti inflammatory activity is suggested to have caused rapid inhibition of the edema of the hind paw induced by carrageenan. Therefore, the efficacy and efficiency of leaves of A. africana is recommended therapeutically, locally, traditionally and pharmaceutically for inhibition and treatment of inflammation.